According to WHO, Every year 16% of the people dies of cancer worldwide. United States of America is spending Millions of Dollars on researching the p
According to WHO, Every year 16% of the people dies of cancer worldwide. United States of America is spending Millions of Dollars on researching the promising cure for cancer and for eradicating the cancer. It is basically an immunotherapy which been recognized by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in Aug, 2017.
CARs Treating the Cancer
CARs are the Chimeric Antigen receptors also known as chimeric immunoreceptors or Chimeric T-cell receptors. This immunotherapy involves the genetically engineered T-cell receptors which work in coordination with CD19 antigen to locate or spot down the cancerous cells in body. CD19 is the most frequently used bio marker in CAR-T cell therapy clinical trials for hematological malignancy such as leukemia and lymphoma. According to statistics report from clinicaltrials.gov, over 300 CAR-T treatments were reported worldwide among which 150 were targeted on CD19, count for 50% of the total number.
HOW CARs Work?
It uses body’s own immune system to fight against cancer. Normal human body have a defense a mechanism which detects and eliminates any sort of invading agents as well as any thing going wrong inside the body, but sometimes cancerous cells become able to evade detection in complex ways. Here comes the work of CARs which actually enhances the immune system of body to target the cancerous cells. Because the initial step for initiating the natural defense mechanism is to detect the thing going wrong in the body.
Here is how this therapy is performed
• Removes immune cells called T-cells from human body.
• Genetically alter the cells in lab to contain certain proteins.
• Inject cells back into the patient.
• Modified proteins help immune cells to find and kill cancerous cells.
CARs have both antigen binding and activating functions. In T- cells it creates a link between the extracellular ligand recognition Domain to an intracellular signaling molecule which activates T cells. PBMC peripheral blood monomolecular cells are separated. Activated by Cytokine (interleukin-2) and Anti-CD3 antibody. T-cells are transferred with CD19 CAR genes and vectors gamma retrovirus or by lentivirus (LV).
Effective against many types of cancer
• Leukemia ALL CLL CML
• Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
• Ovarian cancer
• Prostate cancer
Based on the 300 reported clinical trials across the world, this treatment showed its promising effects within a month. However, time periods still can be varied from person to person and type of cancer. Still it is the only kind of treatment which can eradicate such kind of cancer on which previously every treatment didn’t work.
After all, Success is 99% Failure.
By Shahwaiz Ali Baloch (Medical student MIMC).